The Astronomical Observatory of Mongolia is located on the Bogd Mountain, about 15 km south of the capital city Ulaanbaatar. The site is named Khureltogot. The Astronomical Observatory was founded during the first International Geophysical Year (1957-1958) by the initiative of astronomer Mrs. S. Ninjbadgar in close collaboration with scientists from Russia and Germany. The construction of the main buildings started in 1957 and three telescopes produced by Carl Zeiss (Germany) were installed.
From the early years onwards, the following research activities were undertaken: determination of time and latitude in a network of astronomical observatories; observation of near-Earth artificial satellites and asteroids; observation of solar active phenomena; recording and study of earthquakes; investigations of the telluric magnetic field and its variations; study of impact of atmospheric turbulence on seeing quality. There was a lively collaboration, mainly with Russia, and many Mongolian astronomers were trained in Russia.
Today the main building hosts offices and a lecture room, a building (and a Mongolian tent) providing lodging, the buildings hosting the coronograph, a permanent GPS station, the Coud ́e refractor, the meridian circle and the 45-cm Meade Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. The telescopes and instruments are used for both scientific and educational purposes.